Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Wanna Cry Ransomware

You all are heard that newly born Wanna Cry Ransomware virus, it started attack on Friday, 12 May 2017It targeting the Microsoft Windows operating system, encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the crytocurrency bitcoin.

 Now, Below are best point to  stay safe your Microsoft windows operating system from Wanna Cry Ransomware.
  • Be careful to click on harmful links in your emails.
  • Be wary of visiting unsafe or unreliable sites.
  • Never click on a link that you do not trust on a web page or access to Facebook or messaging applications such as WatSab and other applications.
  • If you receive a message from your friend with a link, ask him before opening the link to confirm, (infected machines send random messages with links).
  • Keep your important files backed up regularly and periodically.
  • Be aware of fraudulent e-mail messages that use names similar to popular services such as PayePal instead of PayPal or use popular service names without commas or excessive characters.
  • Avoid the all e-mails which attractive for digital marketing, online work etc.
  • Use anti virus and Always make have the last update.
  • Make sure your windows have the last update close the gap.
  • If you fill that you computer gets infected take it off your network immediately. The ransomware will spread to other computer on the network.

Monday, 17 October 2016

Protocol - Part 2

11.) Whois
           Whois protocol is a TCP or TCP-based transaction-oriented query/response protocol that is widely used to provide information services  to internet users.

          WHOIS is also provide information sufficient a contact to responsible party for a particular internet resources who can resolve, or reliably pass on the data to a party.

          It use port number 43.

12.) Terminal access controller access control system (TACACS)
          TACACS is authentication protocol that allow to remote access server to forward a user's logon
password to authentication server to determine whether access can be allowed to a given system.

          It use port number 49.

13.) Domain name system (DNS)

         Domain name system (DNS) provide naming conversation facility. It convert friendly username to IP address and IP address to friendly name.

       It use both TCP and UDP port number 53.

14.)  Dynamic Host configuration Protocol (DHCP) 
         Dynamic Host configuration Protocol (DHCP) is client/server protocol which provide IP addres on client system from a specific IP address range (also know as scope).
         DHCP also allow to supply IP gateway, DNS server address, WINS server address from a DHCP scope option.

         It use port number 67 and 68.

15.) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

       Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allow to transferring files that is simpler to use than the file transfer protocol (FTP) but less capable.

       TFTP uses the user datagram protocol rather than Transmission control protocol (TCP).

       TFTP use port number 69.

16.) Finger Protocol 
        Finger Protocol is simple Network protocol for the exchange of human-oriented status and user

        It use port number 79.

17.)  Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

        Hyper text transfer protocol used by the world wide web and this protocol define how message
       are formatted and transmitted, and what action web servers and browsers should take in respons
       various command. HTTP also use for web browsing.

       It use port number 80.

18.)  Kerberos Protocol 
          Kerberos is computer network authentication protocol which allow to user to access network
          device in a secure manner in non-secure public area.

          It use port number 88.

19.)   Post Office Protocol Version 2 and 3 ( POP v2&v3)

         Post office protocol (POP) is responsible to retrieve the e-mails to client side.

         It use port number 109 (for V2) and 110 (for v3).

20.)  Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) 

         It is a secure version of FTP, which facilities data access and data transfer over a secure shell
          (SSH) data stream.

          It use port number 115.

===============>  THANKS  FOR  VIEWING <======================





Saturday, 8 October 2016

Protocol - Part 1

What is Protocol?
A protocol is language your computer uses to communicate with other computers. protocol is special set of rules thats end point in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate.protocol specify interactions between the communicating entities.

Protocol Suite?
Protocol suite means set of communicate protocol used on the internet and similarly computer network. Its commonly known that TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol).

Let's We are discuss various types of TCP/IP suite protocol : 

1.) Internet Control message protocol (ICMP)
       Internet control message protocol (ICMP) is TCP/IP network layer protocol that provide troubleshooting, connectivity, error-control and error-message services.
       ICMP for internet protocol version 4 is called ICMPv4 and for internet protocol version 6 is
        called ICMPv6.
     ICMP assigned Port number 1 according to

2.) Internet Group management Protocol (IGMP) 
      Internet group management protocol is used for IPv4 multicast and Multicast Listener Discovery
      is used for IPv6. Multicasting allow one computer to the internet to send content to multiple
      other computers that have identified themselves as interested in receiving and originating
      network content.

      IGMP assigned Port number 2.

3.) Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP)
      GGP is similar in general operation to the Routing Information protocol (RIP) in that it uses a
     distance vector algorithm to determine the best routes between source to destination.
      A router using GGP initially start out in null state, assuming that all link to other router and local
      network down. It than tests the status of its local network by seeing if it can send and receive
      message, it respond with a GGP echo reply message. Every 15 second router send to GGP echo
      Gateway-to-gateway protocol assigned Port number 3.

4.)  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
       Transmission control protocol is one of main protocol in TCP/IP suite. It originated in the initial
       network implementation in which it complemented in the internet protocol.

      TCP is create connection oriented session between source and destination means it provide
      acknowledgment of particular session.

     TCP use Port number 6.

5.)  User Datagram protocol (UDP)
      User Datagram protocol (UDP) connectionless protocol means it don't provide any
      acknowledgement of particular session.

       UDP use Port number 17.

6.)   File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
        File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard networking protocol used to transfer computer file
        and folder between a client and a server in network. FTP server one types of a centralized
       system where we are store all necessary data and all other client are access it and download its
       require data.

       FTP server use 21 port number and FTP data control use 20 Port number.

7.)  Secure Shell (SSH)
       Secure shell a cryptography network protocol managing network services securely over an
       unsecure network.

        Its best example of remote login on computer.

       It use 22 port number.

8.)  Telnet (Telecommunication network)
       Telnet is application layer protocol which provide command line interface to access remotely
       computer and we can create , delete and modify in its database using command.

       Telnet don't provide any security on remote session.

        Telnet use Port number 23.

9.)  Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)
      Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) is an internet standard for electronic mail transmission.
      A protocol for sending e-mail message between servers. SMTP is responsible to sending e-mail
      from one system to another.

      SMTP use port number 25.

10.) Private-mail (PRIV-MAIL)
        Private-mail protocol is responsible to private mail system.
       Priv-mail use Port number 24.

      =========  THANKS  FOR  VIEWING ===========   

Friday, 7 October 2016


     1.)    Which routing protocol include in EGP category ?
a.)    EIGRP
b.)    IS-IS
c.)     OSPF
d.)    BGP

     2.)    Which routing method break the routing loop?
a.)    Auto-summarization
b.)    Split-horizon
c.)     Dis-continue network
d.)    All of above

    3.)    Which hope count number considered to be infinite by RIP.
a.)    5
b.)    10
c.)     15
d.)    16

    4.)    Which update used by EIGRP ?
a.)    Periodic update
b.)    Partial update
c.)     Trigger update
d.)    None of above

   5.)    Which type of session created by BGP?
a.)    Anycast
b.)    Broadcat
c.)     Unicast
d.)    Multicast

   6.)    Which multicast prefix used by IPv6?
a.)    Ff00::/2
b.)    Ff00::/8
c.)     Ff02::/2
d.)    Ff02::/8

   7.)    Which of the following is helpful to allow an IPv6 host to learn the IP address of a default gateway on its subnet?
a.)    Stateful DHCP
b.)    Stateless RS
c.)     Stateless autoconfiguration
d.)    Neighbor Discovery protocol

   8.)    Which command is enable IPv6 routing packet on router?
a.)    IPv6 route packet
b.)    IPv6 unicast packet
c.)     IPv6 unicast-routing
d.)    IPv6 unicast routing

   9.)    How many hex available in IPv6 single quarter?

a.)    8
b.)    4
c.)     2
d.)    16

v10.)  Which IPv6 address is reserve for site-local address?
a.)    Ffo2::/8
b.)    2000::/3
c.)     Fec0::/10
d.)    Fe80::/10

   11.)  In IPv6 which prefix value is called as a site prefix/global routing prefix?
a.)    /64
b.)    /16
c.)     /48
d.)    /32

   12.)  EUI stand for ________ ?

a.)    Extended user interface
b.)    Extended unique interface
c.)     Extended user indentify
d.)    None of above

   13.)  Which multicast address use by router solicitation in DHCPv6 process?
a.)    Ff02::2
b.)    Ff02::1
c.)     Ff02::8
d.)    Ff02::16

   14.)  Which multicast address used by RIPng?
a.)    Ff02::5
b.)    Ff02::1
c.)     Ff02::9
d.)    Ff02::10

    15.)   Dual stack approach refers to _____?
a.)    Implementing IPv4 with 2 stack
b.)    Implementing IPv6 with 2 stack
c.)     Node has both IPv4 and IPv6 support
d.)    None of above

    16.)  Which IPv6 address reserved for 6to4 tunneling method?

a.)    2002::/8
b.)    2002::/32
c.)     2002::/16
d.)    2002::/48

    17.)  Which of the following is true when describing an anycast address?
a.)    Packets addressed to a unicast address are delivered to a single interface.
b.)    Packets are delivered to all interfaces identified by the address. This is also called one-to-many address.
c.)     This address identifies multiple interface and the anycast packet is only delivered to one address. This address can also be called one-to-one-to-many.
d.)    These address are meant for nonrouting purpose.

   18.)  A router has been configured with the commands router eigrp 9  and network No other EIGRP related commands have been configured. Which answer list an IP address/prefix length that would cause the router to enable EIGRP on fastethernet 0/0?


   19.)  Which command is manually disable split-horizon method in EIGRP router on serial 1/0 interface?

a.)    Interface serial 0/1
No ip split-horizon ospf 1

b.)    Interface serial 1/0
No ip split-horizon eigrp 1

c.)     Interface serial 1/0
No split-horizon eigpr 1

d.)    All of above

   20.)  In EIGRP metric value k4 refer to _____?
a.)    Bandwidth
b.)    Delay
c.)     Load
d.)    MTU

   21.)  Your company is running IGRP using an AS of 10. You want to configure EIGRP on the network but want to migrate slowly to EIGRP and don’t want to configure redistribute. What command would allow you to migrate over time to EIGRP without configuring restribution?

a.)    Router eigrp 11
b.)    Router eigpr 10
c.)     Router eigrp 10
d.)    Router igrp combine 10

    22.)  Where are EIGRP successor routes stored?
a.)    In the routing table only
b.)    In the neighbour table only
c.)     In the topology table only
d.)    In the routing and topology table

   23.)  Which command will display all the EIGRP feasible successor routes known to a router?

a.)    Show ip routes *
b.)    Show ip eigrp summary
c.)     Show ip eigrp topology
d.)    Show ip eigrp adjacencies

   24.)  Which EIGRP information is held in RAM and maintained through the use of Hello and update packets?

1.)    Neighbor table
2.)    STP table
3.)    Topology table
4.)    DUAL table

a.)    2 only
b.)    4 only
c.)     1 and 3
d.)    All of above

   25.)  If you are configure EIGRP frame relay scenario in live field. You find out the split-horizon prevent to adjacency from endpoint to another endpoint. Than which think you apply on it.

a.)    Point-to-point topology
b.)    Point-to-multipoint topology
c.)     Manually disable split-horizon
d.)    All of above

    26.)  EIGRP frame relay create network type ______ ?

a.)    Point-to-point network
b.)    NBMA network
c.)     Broadcast network
d.)    Unicast network

    27.)  You want to prevent any interface don’t send own network information to another router, but it receive EIGRP adjacency, Which think you apply on it.

a.)    MD5 authentication
b.)    EIGRP passive interface
c.)     Change hello timer
d.)    All of above

   28.)  Which utility use to create a link between EIGRP routing and IP prefix-list?

a.)    Standard ACL
b.)    Extended ACL
c.)     Distribute list
d.)    Redistribute list

   29.)  EIGRP use AD value and algorithm ______?

a.)    DUAL and 110
b.)    DUAL and 115
c.)     DUAL and 170, 90
d.)    None of above

   30.)  Which type of OSPF network will elect a backup designated router?

a.)    Non-broadcast multi-access
b.)    Point-to-point
c.)     Broadcast multipoint
d.)    None of above

   31.)  You get a call from a network administrator  who tells you that he typed the following into his router:

Router(config)# router ospf 3

Router(config-router)# network area 0

He tell you he still can’t see any routes in the routing table. What configuration error did the administrator make?

a.)    The wildcard mask is incorrect.
b.)    The OSPF area is wrong
c.)     The ospf process ID is wrong
d.)    The network is incorrect.

   32.)  If routers in a single area are configured with the same priority value, what value does a router use for the OSPF router ID in the absence of a loopback interface?

a.)    The lowest IP address of any physical interface
b.)    The highest IP address of any physical interface
c.)     The lowest IP address of any logical interface
d.)    None of above

  33.)  Which command is use to view the OSPF LSA content?

a.)    Show ip ospf neighbour
b.)    Show ip ospf traffic
c.)     Show ip ospf database
d.)    Show ip ospf account

  34.)  Which protocol number used by OSPF?

a.)    TCP 89
b.)    UDP 89
c.)     Transport 89
d.)    TCP and UDP 89

   35.)  Which one of the following commands will place network into are 3?

a.)    Network area 0
b.)    Network area 3
c.)     Network area 3
d.)    Network area 3

   36.)  What are reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical design?

a.)    To decrease routing overhead
b.)    To speed up convergence
c.)     To confine network network instability to single areas of the network
d.)    All of above

   37.)  In OSPF scenario any one single area is not directly connected with backbone area. But organization requirement to make connectivity that areas to all another single area, which think you apply on it.

a.)    OSPF frame relay
b.)    OSPF virtual link
c.)     OSPF stub area
d.)    None of above

   38.)  Which is use of make OSPF totally stub-area?

a.)    Area 0 stub
b.)    Area 0 totally stub
c.)     Area 0 stub no-summary
d.)    Are 0 no-summary

   39.)  Which OSPF LSA type is considered as a ASBR summary LSA?

a.)    LSA type 2
b.)    LSA type 3
c.)     LSA type 4
d.)    LSA type 5

   40.)  NSSA stand for _____ ?

a.)    Non-so-standard area
b.)    Not-so-stub area
c.)     Not-so-stubby-area
d.)    All of above

   41.)  What is AD value of internal BGP?

a.)    20
b.)    200
c.)     177
d.)    178

   42.)  To create neighbourhood relationship, a router running BGP sends an _____ message.

a.)    Open
b.)    Update
c.)     Keep alive
d.)    Close

   43.)  Why we are use Route redistribution?

a.)    Mergers when different IGPs are used.
b.)    Mergers when the same IGP is used.
c.)     Different company division are under separate control for business or political reason.
d.)    All of above

     44.)  What command can be used to view the configuration of a key chain used by OSPF?

a.)    Show key chain
b.)    Show key-chain
c.)     Show authentication key chain
d.)    Show eigrp key chain

    45.)  Which of the following is not true regarding cisco IOS default setting for administrative distance?

a.)    EIGRP external : 90
b.)    OSPF internal : 110
c.)     RIP : 120
d.)    None of above

========= THANKS FOR  VIEWING ==========