Saturday, 8 October 2016

Protocol - Part 1


What is Protocol?
A protocol is language your computer uses to communicate with other computers. protocol is special set of rules thats end point in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate.protocol specify interactions between the communicating entities.

Protocol Suite?
Protocol suite means set of communicate protocol used on the internet and similarly computer network. Its commonly known that TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol).

Let's We are discuss various types of TCP/IP suite protocol : 

1.) Internet Control message protocol (ICMP)
       Internet control message protocol (ICMP) is TCP/IP network layer protocol that provide troubleshooting, connectivity, error-control and error-message services.
     
       ICMP for internet protocol version 4 is called ICMPv4 and for internet protocol version 6 is
        called ICMPv6.
     ICMP assigned Port number 1 according to IANA.org.

2.) Internet Group management Protocol (IGMP) 
      Internet group management protocol is used for IPv4 multicast and Multicast Listener Discovery
      is used for IPv6. Multicasting allow one computer to the internet to send content to multiple
      other computers that have identified themselves as interested in receiving and originating
      network content.

      IGMP assigned Port number 2.

3.) Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP)
      GGP is similar in general operation to the Routing Information protocol (RIP) in that it uses a
     distance vector algorithm to determine the best routes between source to destination.
   
      A router using GGP initially start out in null state, assuming that all link to other router and local
      network down. It than tests the status of its local network by seeing if it can send and receive
      message, it respond with a GGP echo reply message. Every 15 second router send to GGP echo
      message.
     
      Gateway-to-gateway protocol assigned Port number 3.

4.)  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
       Transmission control protocol is one of main protocol in TCP/IP suite. It originated in the initial
       network implementation in which it complemented in the internet protocol.

      TCP is create connection oriented session between source and destination means it provide
      acknowledgment of particular session.

     TCP use Port number 6.

5.)  User Datagram protocol (UDP)
      User Datagram protocol (UDP) connectionless protocol means it don't provide any
      acknowledgement of particular session.

       UDP use Port number 17.

6.)   File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
        File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard networking protocol used to transfer computer file
        and folder between a client and a server in network. FTP server one types of a centralized
       system where we are store all necessary data and all other client are access it and download its
       require data.

       FTP server use 21 port number and FTP data control use 20 Port number.

7.)  Secure Shell (SSH)
       Secure shell a cryptography network protocol managing network services securely over an
       unsecure network.

        Its best example of remote login on computer.

       It use 22 port number.

8.)  Telnet (Telecommunication network)
       Telnet is application layer protocol which provide command line interface to access remotely
       computer and we can create , delete and modify in its database using command.

       Telnet don't provide any security on remote session.

        Telnet use Port number 23.

9.)  Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)
      Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) is an internet standard for electronic mail transmission.
      A protocol for sending e-mail message between servers. SMTP is responsible to sending e-mail
      from one system to another.

      SMTP use port number 25.

10.) Private-mail (PRIV-MAIL)
        Private-mail protocol is responsible to private mail system.
 
       Priv-mail use Port number 24.

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